Eleven months at sea is a long time! But true, nevertheless, as documented in his captain, David Pieterzoon DeVrie’s journal, published in 1655. Refer to my Dutch Nomenclature of Ship Terminology to better understand Piero Alberti’s caulking work on board the ship De Konink David ( the King David) on his way to America in 1634.*
‘Land of Tribute’ is the last book of my trilogy, ‘Venice, East & West.’
79 ‘The history of musical instruments,’ by Curt Sachs NY (1940)
80 ‘Le artic he vanno per via nella citta di Venezia,’ by Gaetano Zompini, Brescia (1996)
81 ‘Cronaca Veneziana: feste e vita quotidiana nella Venezia del Settecento/ vedute di Gabriel Bella e incisioni di Gaetano Zompini dalled raccolte della Fondazione Scientifica Querini Stampalia di Venezia; a cura giurgio Busetto,’ pub @ Venezia (1991)
82 ‘Violence in Early Renaissance Venice,” by Guido Ruggiero, Rutgers U. Press, (1980)
83 ‘Housecraft and Statecraft: domestic service in Renaissance Venice, 1400-1600,’ be Dennis Romano
84 ‘Western Medicine in Europe; an Historical Geography of Italy,’ Catherine Delano Smith, Academic Press, 1979, NY
85 ‘The Venetian Patrician: Myth vrs. Reality,’ by Donald E. Quellar, Rome, 1987
86 “The Fourth Crusade,’ by Donald E. Quellar, (1999) U. of Penn Press
87 ‘Politics in Renaissance Venice,’ by R. Finlay, London 1980
88 ‘Offices Available to Patricians in Venice, 1635,’ Biblioteca Correr, Cod. P.D. 4a, c.74
89 ‘Venetian Humanism in an Age of patrician Dominance,’ by M L King, Princeton U. 1986
90 ‘Condemnation of Great Council of Venice in the years of 1620-1622,’ Biblioteca Corer, Cod. It., cl.VII 9469-80
91 ‘Concilio di Trento, I’ by Fra Paolo Sarpi, pp189-190 cf II pp. 192-247
92 ‘Gasparo Contarini and Religious Reform in Venice,’ by Elisabeth Gleason, UC Berkeley Press, 1993
93 ‘La Composizione economica e professionale della populatizion di Venezia nei secoli XVI alla cadata della republica,’ by Daniele Beltrami Giornale degli E…Jan-Feb 1951
94 ‘Trade, Society, and the Venetian State,’ by CH Wilson, p. 527
95 ‘Cloth Production and Internal Competition in 17th Century Venice,’ by CW Wilson, economic History review, 2nd series, XIII (1960) 209-221
96 ‘The Wool Trade in Tudor& Stuart England,’ by Peter J. Bowden, London, 1962 p. 43-56
97 ‘Insurance in Venice from the Origins to the End of the Serenissima,’ by Giuseppe Stefani 2vol. pub in Venice and Trieste
98 ‘Maritime Insurance: Amsterdam, Venice, and the Levant,’ in ‘Age of Mercantile History,’ by Frank Spooner, Harvard Press
99 ‘The Rise and Fall of Venice,’ by Phyllis Longworth, London 1974
100 ‘Venice and the Defense of Republican Liberty in Renaissance Values in the Age of Counter reformation,’ by William J. Bousma, Berkeley Ca. U. Press 1968
101 ‘The Roman Inquisition and the Venetian Press, 1540-1605,’ by Paul F. Grendler, Princeton, 1977
102 ‘The Architectural History of Venice,’ by Deborah Howard, London, 1980
103 ‘’A Survey of the Signory of Venice,’ by James Howell, London 1651
104 ‘Nefarious Crimes, Contested Justice and Infanticide in the Republic of Venice 1557-1789,’ by Joanne Ferraro, Johns Hopkins Press, 2008 (Review of this book by Jutta Sperling in Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth, no. 2 (210) pp. 435-37)
105 ‘The Paradox of Perfection: Rediscovering the Body Politic in Late Renaissance Venice,’ by Jutta Sperling, Hampshire College, in Society and History 41 no 1 (1999)
106 ‘Convents and the Body Politic in Late Renaissance Venice,’ by Jutta Gisela Sperling, U. of Chicago Press, 2000
107 ‘Virgins of Venice,’ by Mary Laven London, 2002
108 ‘A Companion to Venetian History,’ ed. by Eric Dursteler, July, 2013, in ‘Brill’s Companion to European History, Vol. 4’
109 ‘Paternal Tyranny,’ by Arcangela Tarabotti, as translated by Letizia Panizza as ‘The other Voice in early Modern Europe,’ U. of Chicago Press, 2004
110 ‘The Individual and the Cosmos in Renaissance Philosophy,’ by Ernst Cassirer and trans. by Mario Domandi Harper, 1963
111 ‘A History of Mechanical Inventions,’ by Abbot Payson Usher, NY McGraw-Hill 1929
112 ‘Documenti Veneziani su Giovanni Caboto,’ by S. Caboto, Venezia
113 ‘Witchcraft and Inquisition in early Modern Venice,’ by Jonathan Seitz, Cambridge U. Press, 2011
114 ‘First Born of Venice: Vicenza in the Early Renaissance,’ by James Grubb, Johns Hopkins U. Press, 2019
115 ‘Opera in Seventeenth Century Venice: the Creation of a Genre,’ by Ellen Rosand, U.C. Press, 2007
116 ‘Venetian Upper Clergy in 16th and 17th Century,’ by Oliver Logan, U. of Salzburg, 1997
117 ‘Venice, a Documentary History, 1450-1650 ed. by Chambers and Pullan, 1992, Cambridge
118 ‘The Makers of Venice,’ by Oliphant, London, 1893
119 ‘The Venetian Empire,’ by Jan Morris, London, 1980
120 ‘Feudal Patrician Investments in Brescian Politics of the Estimo, 1641’ by Joanne Ferraro, Fondascione Giorgio Cini Onlus, Studi Veneziani VII
121 ‘Rich and Poor among the Patriciate in Early Modern Venice,’ ‘*Gossip and Street Culture in Early Modern Venice,’ and ‘#Marriage, Manners, and Mobility in Early Modern Venice,’ all by Alexander Cowan, *publ. by Journal of early Modern History 2008, # Ashgate 2007
122 ‘Gambling and Venetian Noblemen, c. 1500-1700: Trust in renaissance Electoral Politics,; by Mark Jundjivic in Jo. Of Interdisciplinary History, 34.4 (2000)
123 ‘Religious Veil/Venice Churches/Sacrament of Penance/Catholic Encyclopedia
124 ‘Venice, the Golden Age 697-1796,’ by Alvise Zorzi, Venice, 1983
125 ‘The Letters of Claudio Monteverdi,’ by Denis Stevens, Oxford 1995
126 ‘The Doge’s Palace in Venice: A Guide,’ by Giandomenico Romanelli, Venice, 2005
127 ‘Trade Rivalry and the Commercial revolution,’ by Richard T. Rapp, SUNY at Stony Brook, in Journal of Economic History, Vol 35 Sept. 1975, #3
128 ‘When Myths Lose Their Power,’ by James Grubb of U. of Maryland, in Journal of American History, 58 (March 1986, pp 43-94 U. Chicago Press)
129 ‘Historical Justification of Venetian Power in the Adriatic,’ by Filippo di Vivo, Trinity College, Cambridge, Journal of the History of Ideas, 64.2 (2003)
130 ‘Venice and English Political Thought in the 17th Century.’ by Z S Fink pub in Modern Philology, Vol 38 No 2 U. Chicago Press, 1940, pp. 155-172
131‘Venice, the Hinge of Europe, 1081-1797,’ by William MacNeill, 1974
132 ‘Food in History,’ by Reay Tannahill, 1973
133 ‘Amsterdam et Venise,” by H Harvard, Paris 1876
134 ‘Nederland en Venetie,’ by J. C. de Jonge, Hague, 1852
135 “Il Doge Nicolo Contarini,’ by Gaetano Cozzi, Venice, Rome, 1958 (An English summary of this book is easily found on ‘Ereticopedia,’ provided by ‘Mediterranean Digital and Public Humanities’
136 ‘Considerazione sull ‘Agricoltura Veneta,’ by A. Ventura in Studi Storici, (1968)
137 ‘Libro d’Oro,’ Register of Venetian Patricians, or Nobles
138 ‘Libro d’Argento,’ Register of Venetian Cittadini
139 ‘Marc Antonio Venier, Renier Zeno, and the Myth of Venice,’ by Charles Rose pub. in Historian, May of 1974 vol. 36 issue, pp. 479-497
140 ‘The Complete Writings of a Venetian Heretic,’ by Olympia Fulvia Morata, ed. and transl. by Holt N. Parker as ‘The Other Voice in Early Modern Europe,’ U. Chicago Press, 2003 vol. 33
141 ‘Glassmaking in Renaissance Italy: The Innovation of Venetian Cristallo,’ by W. Patrick Mac Cray, J. of Management Studies 50 May 1998 pp 14-19
142 ‘Saltpeter production in the republic of Venice from 16th through 18th Century,’ by Walter Panciera in Journal of the International Committee for the History of technology, 3 (1997) pp. 155-166
143 ‘The Rise of Commercial Empires: England and Netherlands in the Age of Mercantilism, 1650-1770, Cambridge U. Press, 2003, XVII Cambridge Studies in early Modern History, vol. 10
144 ‘Economics & Toleration in 17th Century Venice,’ by Benjamin Ravid, Jerusalem, 1978. Also ‘The Jews of early Modern Venice,’ 2001, co-edited by Ravid and R.C. Davis, Johns Hopkins U. Press
145 ‘Honor and Necessity: The Dynamics of Patronage in the Confraternities of Venice,’ by Patricia Fortini Brown, in Studi Veneziani 1987 p. 179
146 ‘Marcantonio Giustiniani, Venetian Patrician and printer of Hebrew Books,’ by Marion Leathers Kuntz in Studi Veneziani, XVII 1981, pp 51-63
147 ‘Reasons of Misrule,’ by Natalie Zemon Davis, Popular Culture in early Modern Europe, 1400-1750 Feb. 1971 pp 41-75
148 ‘Historical Anthropology in early Modern Italy,’ by Peter Burke, Cambridge U. Press, 1987
149 ‘Il politico e il pane a venezia,’ by Ivo Mattorzi, U. of Bologna, Italy Also, ‘Crisi, stagnazione e mutamento nello stato veneziano gli settecento’
150 ‘Battagliola o Guerra tra Nicolotti e Castellani, 1632-1673,’ by Emmanuele Cicogna, Codice 3161
151 ‘Le traffic des offices a Venise,’ by Mousnier in Paris, 1971 (extract from pp. 41-75 – only 5% of the seven hundred and fifty offices of Venetian government based on merit)
152 ‘The Earliest Chemical Industry…alum,’ by Charles Singer, Royal Collection trust, 1948
153 ‘Resources of Venice,’ in ‘Translations and reprints from the Original Sources of European History,’ U. Penn Dept of History, Philadelphia, 1896 Vol III Part 2, pp. 11-14—from a famous speech by Venetian Doge Tomasso Mocenigo in 15th century, grandfather of Doge Alvise Mocenigo of the 16th century
154 ‘The voyages of Giovanni Verrazzano, 1524-1528,’ by Lawerence C. Wroth, New Haven Yates U. Press, 1970
155 ‘Historiae Venetiae, 1521-1615,’ by Andrea di Giacomo Morosini of San Luca, pub. posthumously in Venice
156 ‘Curriculum Vitae’ of Francesco Errizo in 1623 when running for Dogeship, which he lost to Contarini. Biblioteca Marciana, Cod. It., cl. VII, 90 (==8029), CC 249-250. Erizzo became Doge in 1631 when Contarini became sick to death after three wars in fairly rapid succession.
157 ‘The Jesuits and Italian Universities, 1548-1773’ by Paul Grendler, 2017 describes the normal curriculum taught Cittadini and Patrician youths in Venice, though few patrician youths took advantage of such schooling, as the Jesuits had been expelled from Venice. So it was the Chancellery where the brightest students went, almost all being Cittadini who would serve the government. Cicero was taught in the mornings; Virgil, Homer, and Terence in afternoons. The old Vatican Formularies were also adapted to Venetian custom.
158 ‘Service to the Venetian State….in the early 17th Century,’ by Pullan Studi Secenteschi 5 (1964) pp. 95-148
159 ‘Canceleria e Cancelliere lineamenti storici ed istituzionale Latina,’ by Donato Palazzo, Venice, 1972,
160 ‘De Veneti Originarii Cittadini,’ by Antonio Longo, Venice, 1817 Raccolta di Anedoti Sommari e catologo.
161 ‘When did a man in the Renaissance grow old?” by Creighton Gilbert, (1967) from Studies in the renaissance 14, pp. 7-32
162 ‘Il Libro d’argento della famiglie venete: nobili, cittadine, e popolani’ by Giovanni Dolcetti, 5 vol. in 2, Venice, 1922-28, reprint, Bologna 1968
163 “Il Palazzo degli ambasciadori di Venezia a Constantinopoli, e le sue antiche memorie,’ by Tommaso Bertele, Bologna 1932
164 ‘Delle famiglie cittadinesche veneziane,’ by Luigi Artelli, Achivio Veneto, 10 (1875)
165 “Untitled miscellanea: fasc. 180’ contains 17th century list of Chancellery personnel MCC., Cod. Morosini-Grimani 485
166 ‘Cittadini Veneti,’ in Cod Gradenigo, MCC., cod. Gradenigo.
167 ‘Tabelle nominative e cronologiche dei segretari della Cancelleria Ducale,’ BNM, MS It., VII 1667 (8459) Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana MS. It. VII .27 (7761) manuscript in Museo Correr, Venice
168 ‘Italy in the 17th Century,’ by Domenico Stella, London, NY: Longman, 19997 Series; Longman history of Italy.
169 ‘Geneologica della famiglia di Cittadini originarii ‘ BNM MS t. VII 27, (7761)
170 ‘Consiglia Maggior, Delibrazioni—1617-1630, Camerlengo del Consiglio’ in Archivo di Stato, Misc, Codici in Sori Veneti Vols 9-16, by Tassini
171 ‘The Premodern Teenager: Youth in Society, 1150-1650,’ ed. by Konrad Eisenbichler, in Renaissance Studies, 2002
172 ‘Burocrazia e Burocrati a Venezia in eta Moderna: I cittadini originarii Sec. XVI-XVIII’, by Andrea Zannini, Venice, 1993
173 ‘Islamic Society and the West,’ by Satya Datta 2 vol. HAR, Gibb,& Bower, Oxford, pp. 50-57
174 ‘The Psychology of the Venetian Merchant in the 16th century,’ by Ugo Tucci, London 1973
175 ‘Dose di Venetia,’ by Giovanni Carlos Savios, describes procession of 1618 in IV, BMV, MS, Italiano VII, pp121-122 (8862-63) folio 103
176 ‘Squintinio della Liberta Veneta, anche le raggione dall’Impero romano Sopra la Citta & Signoria di Veneta, 1612,’ by Giovanni Benincasa, Stampata in Mirandola
177 ‘The Civic Irresponsibility of the Venetian Nobility,’ by Quellar
178 ‘Alberti, Vita Politi,” ed. M, Grayson cf. R. Weiss, in ‘the Renaissance Discovery of Classical antiquity’ Oxford, 1988
179 ‘Guns and Sails in the Early Phase of European Expansion,’ by C. Cipolla, London, 1963
180 ‘Weapons and Warfare in late Renaissance Europe,’ by B. Hall, Baltimore, 1997
181 ‘The Villa,’ by J. Acheman, Princeton, 1990. Chapter 3
182 ‘Leon Batista Alberti and the Beginnings of Italian Grammar,’ proceedings of the British Academy, 49 (1963) pp. 291-311
183 ‘Venetian Humanism in an Age of Patrician Dominance,’ M. King, Princeton, 1986
‘184 ’Dal ‘Mito’ di Venezia all ‘Ideologia Americana,’ by Renzo Pecchioli, Venice, 1983
185 ‘Description of Italy (1654)’ by Richard Lassels, reproduced as pp. 147-231 in Edward Chaney’s ‘The Grand tour and the Great rebellion,’ Geneva, 1985
186 ‘Real Wages of the Working Classes in Italy, Building Worker’s wages, 14th through 18th centuries,’ by Giovanni Vigo, in Journal of European History 3 (1974) pp. 378-399
187 ‘The Rise and Decline of Urban Industries in Italy and the Low Countries,’ by Herman Van der Wee, Leiden, 1988
188 ‘Dutch Shipbuilding before 1800: Ships and guilds,’ by Richard Unger, The Netherlands, 1978
189 ‘L’Alimentazione a bordo della navi veneziane,’ by Ugo Tuzzi in Studi Vneziane, 13, 1987, pp. 103-145
190 ‘Aldus Manutius,’ by Martin Lowery, Cornell Press 1979
191 ‘Culture and Society in Venice,’ by Oliver Logan, London, 1972
192 “Dictionary of the saints,’ by John Delaney, Doubleday, NY
193 ‘Venice, a Maritime republic,’ by Frederick Chapin Lane, Johns Hopkins U. Press Also by Land, ‘Venetian Ships during the Commercial revolution,’ in American historical review, Vol. 38, Jan 1933 #2 Also by lande, “the Mediterranean Spice Trade,’ in American History review, XLV 1980 p. 581-90
194 “Francesco Tensini and the Fortifications of Vicenza,’ John Hale, Studi Veneziani 1968
195 ‘The Navy of Venice,’ by Alethea Weil, London, Murray, 1910
196 ‘Habiti,’ by Giacomo Franco
197 ‘Vecellios Renaissance Costome Book,’ by Casare Vecellio, Dover Pub. Inc. NY 1977
198 ‘The Reform of the Council of Ten,’ by John Clement Martin, p. 275 1971
199 ‘Power and Information: The Venetian Postal System in the Mediterranean, 1573-1645,’ by Eric Dursteler, BYU 0pp. 601-643 as found on Academia, edu
200 Sources of research I paid Deborah Walberg and Mateeo Casini to do over a thre—year period on the Alberti families which they called Alberti ‘A’ and Alberti ‘B’ both prominent families of cittadini originarii, or what is also called, cittadinanza ordinaria in Venice. Alberti ‘A’ includes research both on my book’s character Andrea Alberti and his wife, Veronica nee. Cremona. * Family trees for both Piero and Giulio
Information concerning Veronica’s Cremona family was found in ASV Avogaria di Commun B. 370 #67, and B. 377 #48. These records include Andrea’s help in obtaining cittadinanzaoriginarii status for her family even though born outside Venice. They also include her family’s expression of the warmest of sentiments for Andrea’s doing this.
Concerning Andrea’s father Piero’s (2nd generation) dowry and marriage to Isabella da Canal in 1556, this is found in Avogardia di Comun, B. 433 #9
Concerning 3rd and 4th generations of the ‘A’ branch, which includes Andrea Alberti (3rd generation,) born in 1558, father of Giulio, (4th generation) who was born in 1605:
From the records of the Council of Ten, which Andrea was much later chosen to serve, my researchers found his record of service: first as elected notary, or secretary, extraordinary (notaio straordinario) in 1576, then secretary ordinary (a higher level called notaio ordinario ) in 1595. These are respectively found in: ASV Consiglio dei Deici, Parti Comuni, reg. 32, ff. 117 r-v and. reg. 45, f. 28r.
In 1609 he is elected to Secretary of the Senate (Segretario dei Pregadi.) ASV Consiglio dei Deici, parti Comuni, reg 59, f. 207v. In 1612 he is elected Secretary to the Ten.
In 1621 he is arrested, information about this found in Cod. Cicogna 3184
It was at this point I began to become very interested in what happened to him, as Deborah had found no information subsequent to that, so I undertook some research of my own at the Shields Library in Davis. And it was here I found about the Vanni uncle and nephew who witnessed against him, and also witnessed against Antonio Foscarini, who was hung for treason. I found this in Allen Hind’s translations of English State Papers relating to Venice, the names mentioned in accounts given by their ambassador there in the 1620’s.
So with this lead, Deborah uncovered more, including Andrea’s ultimate exoneration which I not only desperately longed to hope for, but which I was sure about from what was said about Andrea by his wife’s family. In any case, all of this spurred me on tremendously to write the last few chapters of my book, “Venetian Born.” Unfortunately, she sent nothing about where it was she found this information. But at least she found it! And as a PhD. Student at Princeton I had absolutely no doubt of their veracity. In any case, it was the first time I looked forward with great anticipation to find out what really happened so far back in time.
Concerning the birth of Giulio Cesare Alberti, his baptism at the San Luca church was dated June 10, 1608. (Canonical register n. (1565-1632) to number 143 inclusive)
*Giulio’s uncle Gasparo had ten children not shown and a succession of sons alternately named ‘Girolamo’and ‘Gasparo’ for at least four generations after his death.
There exists no record of Giulio’s marriage, but he did become fabulously wealthy, as is indicated in his final will and testament, The translation of his will is on my website, which, after many contestations by his brother’s sons, his designated heirs, was put in a hundred-year trust called a fideicomissum by his faithful confidant and executor Riviero.
Glossary of Venetian Nomenclature
acqua alta /abnormally high tides, causing flooding to many parts of Venice and the lagoon islands
altana/ a roof or terrace, usually of timber
anagrafe /census of population
bacino/ the body of water where ships were moored between San Giorgio de Maggiore and the ducal palace
bailo/ Venetian patrician representative or ambassador in the Ottoman imperial court at Constantinople who also supervised Venetian traders there. Giulio’s uncle Girolamo had actually been taken prisoner there once as secretary to the Bailo.
balovardo/bulwark or rampart in defensive works to a town
barena/ sandbar or low-lying bank in lagoon, usually visible at low tides
barnabotti /nickname for less affluent, relatively uneducated members of the noble class, some of whom openly sold their votes for the money.
bastion da vin /usually a warehouse for wine, or the official place for selling it (‘a spina’ meaning by the drought)
barbacane/ a jetty, or oversailing upper story of a building, also beams or wooden corbels carrying these jetties out over the streets.
beccarie/ butcher shops near Rialto
bocca di piazza/ main street leading into east end of Piazza San Marco
bora /cold wind and storm blowing from the Alps through the north- eastern Adriatic, sending high waters coursing into the Venetian lagoon. Makes for much flooding mostly in winter.
borghesi /townspeople who owned their land or buildings
bottega/ retail shop (botteghiere is a shopkeeper)
bragolare/ to go fishing
bravi /professional bullies and thugs hired by anyone to intimidate or kill.
bricole/ oak piles or stakes in lagoon indicating navigable channels, also mooring posts, even outside channels
broglio /name of the courtyard at the Doge’s palace where members of the council met to discuss candidates for offices. Became synonymous with bribery, intrigue, and corruption.
barchiello/ produce barges which ply the dogano
burchielle/ small barges
calle/ narrow street or alley
campo/ village square
campo de rialto/ piazza where bankers recorded credit transfers, both local and international, under the arcades. Preceeded the Dutch ‘Bourse’ by hundreds of years as such an efficient market for money transfer.
canalazzo /local term for grand canal
canali /channels of the lagoon
Candia /known also as Crete, it was one of only a few colonies still left, at the time of our story, of Venice’s Mediterranean colonial empire, along with islands and other holdings littered up and down the coasts of Dalmatia and Greece. By the early 1600’s very few ‘mude’ or trade caravans, sailed still for the fear of pirates, privateers from England and Holland, and, of course, the Turks. Giulio’s family and state guest, the Greek Orthodox Patriarch Demetrius is from Crete.
capitello/ small walled shrine in street which leads from San Marco to the Rialto
caranto /the bed of clay and sand under the mud which held fast the piles driven down as foundations for the buildings which still stand in the Dogano
carrizade/ even narrower calle ( alleys) used just for access to densely sub- divided multi-terraced apartments
casa in soler/ house with an upper story (‘solaio’ is an upper room)
casaria rialto /dairy market
cason(e) /isolated house or hut in lagoons, usually for fishing or hunting. Some could be big, the size of villas
catastico/land register, with titles and details of rents or tithes
cavana /usually a boat shed or enclosed dock, also a small pool or swamp
cittadini /proven citizenship for three generations. They could not be patricians unless a woman from a cittadini family marries into a noble family. the high Chancellor, or ‘cancelliari’ comes from the cittadini and is the only othe figure besides the doge who is elected for life. He wore the purple robe with wide sleeves along with the procuratori. He was in charge of all the segretarii such as Giulio’s father Andrea Alberti. These secretaries of state were recruited from the ranks of the privileged cittadini class to serve in the bureaucratic infrastructure of government.
‘Cittadini de intus’/ were foreigners who had resided in Venice 10 years and held certain public offices or engaged in arts and professions. They could trade within the republic.
‘Cittadini de extra’ /had to reside for 16 years in Venice and for that could sail under the banner of S. Marco and practice the noble art of commerce, protected by the military and diplomatic service.
“Cittadini de jure’ or ‘originarii’ /went back at least three generations, like Giulio’s family. This class included many patrician women who had married cittadini men and could not by that definition be patricians any longer. Often the cittidini men they married were a thousand times better off than poorer patrician families like some ‘Barnabotti.’ Those cittadini originarii like Giulio who passed their ‘prova’ at the chancellery became responsible for the entire bureaucratic infrastructure of the government. The highest positions besides Chancellor were Vice Chancellor like Antonio’s uncle Padovan and the three ‘cifristi,’ or cryptographers like Giulio’s father, Andrea,, who served as Secretaries to the Ten and Senate. These secretaries were referred to as the ‘Circospetti,’ and all the others, ‘Fedelissimi.’ Wherever all of them they served, under admirals, or generals, or ambassadors, or as under-ambassadors of state themselves, they were expected to exercise the utmost discretion in the execution of their official duties. While the patricians were constantly rotated to prevent abuse of privilege and power, the secretaries came to be the reliable voice of experience needed to keep the wheels of government going smoothly, especially important during the intermittent wars being waged which confounded a city state with its concommitant layers of overlapping authorities and checks and balances–amounting to a mass of contradictions. Venice was a government distrustful of power, and war demanded a concentration of it that was impossible to maintain. It is said Venice would certainly have collapsed by its own weight (government) much earlier than it did if it wasn’t for wars which maintained certain alliances by diplomatic and mercenary means, including large purchases of munitions from friendly foreign governments. In the end it was the secretaries who palliated the inherent problems of a limited leadership in times of peace let alone war.
collone/ two granite columns at the end of the Piazzetta facing the Molo
coltrina /a cortina or curtain wall in a defensive system
compravender-baggi /buyers and sellers of produce who transported crops from farm to market
‘disce pati’/ ‘learn to suffer’ scratched in prison walls, graffiti dep[icting fate of those sent to prison
dogado /original core of Venetian territory, encompassing the lagoon surrounding Venice from Chioggia to Murano and Grado., including all such Lidi
dogana da mar/ customs house on the point of land which divides the grand and giudecca canals
doge ruler, elected at first by popular vote, then by the noble class
ducale /letter or decree from the doge and the Signoria to one of their appointees, usually governors or podesta of subject towns
erberia /a town or neighborhood outdoor vegetable-market
felze /portable cabins on gondolas
filatoi /silk weaving or twisting
fondamenta/ quay or waterfront
fondamento /foundation of a building. Also used for salt beds of lagoon
fontego or fondaco/ store or warehouse, often for flour, grain, or other bulk materials
A Romanesque Palazzo built during the middle ages, with a design derived from the ‘casa a torresele’ with its long portico and loggia
between two small towers on each end, this Palazzo owned by the current Doge, became converted right at he time of our story into the Fontego dei Turchi. This turkish emporium on the grand canal was managed by Giulio’s uncle Girolamo Alberti, who had much experience with both Jewish and Saraceni traders from the East.. Its first floor atrium was where wholesale merchandise was received and stored.
forno /oven or furnace, usually of a bakery, sometimes a brick or lime kiln
fortezza stellare/ fortress at Palmanova in the Friuli to repel invasions of Hapsburg Austria. Just finished by the time of this story, it is where Giulio’s father, Andrea Alberti, is taken prisoner.
ghebbo /a unit of land apparently confined to the southern part of the lagoon, also a ditch or drainage channel
ghetto /where the Jews lived, an old site of a foundry (gettare)
osteria /hostelry or tavern, usually with accommodations for travelers
laguna /Venetian lagoon both ‘morta’ and ‘viva’, both living, and ‘dead’ mostly due to silt accumulation from rivers’ discharge
lido or lio /long, narrow island forming a barrier between the lagoon and the open sea
lista /white stones of immunity in front of ambassador’s embassies
loggetta /headquarters of arsenal workers, at foot of campanile, who were responsible for maintaining law and order during sessions of Maggior Consiglio
luganegher /pork butcher
massaria /treasury, usually of the town council where rents were collected and disbursements made
miaria, mier colloquial for migliaia /or one-thousand Can refer to a measure of land, like ghebbo
maggio /a unit of measure for bulk goods, esp. grain, flour, salt…one miglia equals approx. 250 kg. or approx 550 #. (a mazeto is a ‘short’ ‘maggio.’
Malamocco/ port town on the Lido which is the main scene of the book. Malamochi or Malamochini are the residents there. The island itself was once called Malamocco, and took it’s name from the river named by the Romans ‘Metamauco,’ which was changed to the ‘Brenta Flu’, and which wound through Venice before giving its name to the Malamocco Canal.
malvasia /Mediterranean destinations that produced this sweet grape wine.
marangona /one of the bells in St. mark’s tower which marked the beginning and end of the workday for the arsenal’s marangoni (woodworkers)
mariegola /rule book of strict standards and practices for each craft. Venetians were adamant about maintaining the highest quality and uniformity of goods in an age, at the time of this book, which was busy undercutting quality wherever possible to gain access to markets. Emerging powers such as England and Holland even sabotaged Venetian goods with false markings to gain a greater share of their trade.
margariteri /glass bead makers
mezzadri /renters of land (often owned by scuole or churches or convents) to farm, who could leave it as inheritances
molo /wharf in front of the piazzetta by the doge’s palace
monte de pieta/ state-run pawnshop, which sometimes evolved into a state-run loan system
nomboli /hindquarters of beef
ortolano /market-gardener, grower of orchard crops
palificata /pilings of timber stakes, usually as protection against the sea off the lidi windward shores
paluda /swamp, marsh
parangon /place in Rialto district where the highest quality of silk was woven it became a standard.
parrocchie /parishes within districts (sestiers) of the city
passo /standard Venetian measure of length, a pace or stride, approx. 1.8 meters or yards, divided into 5 piedi or feet
piazza /large town square (piazetta a diminutive for smaller towns)
pescaria /fish market on the Rialto
pistoria /bakery (‘pistori’ are those who prepare the dough, not the bakers)
podesta /governor of town who presided over locally elected towns councils. Position was appointed by central Venetian government. Term of office usually about 16 months
portego /main hall on first floor (piano nobile) where guests were received and entertained.
pozzi/ wellheads made of sometimes ancient and decorated construction material placed at the center of campi and courtyards, surrounded by sand through which water from gutters filtered into the well for use by the neighborhood or home. Acqua Dolce was brought into the city from the terra firma on barges to replenish these wells when they ran low. Underground, a wall was built first, to confine this sand so as to keep the water pure.
procuratie/ official residence of procurators of San Marco, p. nuove is on the south side, p. vecchie is on the north and is where Giulio lived.
proto/ usually chief surveyor or chief architect
provveditore/ head of government department or commission
rendite or livelli/ rents or tithes
rio /a narrow, minor canal
riva /quay or waterfront
raga /an important retail street
ramo /a short connecting street between two bigger ones
regatta /boat races for either men and women made famous in Venice
riello /a diminutive of ‘rio’ or narrow canal.
riva/ word referring to both the banks where goods and people are loaded and unloaded, and the steps where both passengers get on and off the waiting boats.
sacca /an enclosed area of water, bay or harbor
salina /salt pan
salizzada/ paved street, an important thoroughfare
salon/ great hall or room in Venetian palaces.
saraceni /Venetian name for ishmaelites, or ‘infideli’ Not Christian, and certainly not catholic. Most Venetians, feared their emerging strength, but maintained respectful and friendly trade relations.
schiavine /large woolen blankets
scirocco /warm wind and storm from the south-western Adriatic causing flood waters to pour into the Venetian Lagoon, mostly occurring in summer.
scuellini /makers of soup bowls
scuola /a religious confraternity, or a trade (arti) guild
scuole grandi /major fraternities, usually run by cittadini, where patricians could only be members which participated in charities, hosted performances, funded floats and marched in parades, sponsored saints-days and other things
sestiere /one of six administrative districts of Venice… S. Marco, S. Polo, Cannareggio, Castello, Dorsoduro, and S. Croce
signoria /Inner circle of venetian government, consisting of doge and his six councilors, as well as the Capi della Quarantia
sospiri /bridge of sighs connecting the doges palace with the ‘piombi’ or lower prisons (built after my first two books.)
sottoporteghi/ narrow arcades built into walls of private houses to accommodate pedestrian traffic
squartate /drawn and quartered bodies displayed to public as warnings
squero /boatyard for construction and repair of small boats, run by squerioli boatbuilders
stretto /dialect for narrow passageway
stua /public bathhouses (dens of iniquity)
terrafirma /mainland of the Veneto (from Friuli in the northeast to the Polesine in the south, to Bergamo and Crema in the west) Padova was perhaps the closest geographically and in relation, especially with its great university there which Venice managed. Much of Giulio’s mother’s family was from Padova. Trade with Venice did, however, supported the economies of the cities on the mainland considerably, as did the surety of staples held in Venice and distributed in times of drought.
testori/ silk weavers
ternaria/ department of government with power over tax and sale of oil. Place where it is stored.
togas /floor-length robes were the standard dress of patricians over age of 25 and cittidini as well. Their colors varied according to position
extra wide sleeves, known as ‘all ducale’ belonged to procurators of S. Marco, or otherwise very distinguished senators.
traghetti/ ferry. There were three kinds, those that plied the canals, those of the lagoon, and those to and from the mainland
serenissima/ name for Venice, the serene
valle /shallow basins of enclosed water within or on the edge of lagoons, including the small islands covered by thick grasses, blue-green in the summer, turning red in the fall
vallecella /two-oared rowing, the rower standing- facing the bow
valli/ fishermen who worked the valle
vino a spina/ drought wine
zattere /fondamenta on the Giudecca (Zueca) that took its name from rafts which had come down the Piave river with wood for the pilings
zornadieri/casual day-laborers (worse off than mezzadri but not as bad off as beggars (mendicanti)
Venetian governmental offices
Consiglio dei Dieci/ council of ‘Ten,’ inner cabinet of government concerned with matters of state security, which gave it wide powers over military affairs, and foreign policy. It could act quickly and independently without restrictions other offices had.
Deici Savii Sopra le Decime/ The office at the Rialto responsible for administration of tithes, livelli, and taxes. Organized surveys of land and property in Venice and all of terrafirma (mainland provinces under control of Venice)
Milizia da Mar/ Responsible for financial administration of lesser communities of laggons such as the Lido and Malamocco.
Offitio alle Acque/ ministry responsible for surveying and maintenance of the lagoons, and all associated ports, rivers, canals, sea- defenses
Cinque Savi alla Mercazia/ Venetian Board of Trade. In our story, their head was Senator Vendramin, founder of the Banco Giro.
Collegio della Milizia da Mar/ Office which recruited for and equipped galleys and galleazze
Gran Consiglio, or Consiglio Maggiore/ Great council which convened on Sundays, closed to non- nobles. Elected the new Doge when the old one died. It also elected the minor council members called the ‘serenissima signoria,’ each who served for only 8 months to a year. These members wore scarlet robes.and comprised the supreme authority of the state, all serving to severely restrict the power of the Doge. They also sat with the ‘Ten’ Elects highest positions in government, including ambassadors and commanders of the fleet, as well as mainland commanders and positions of governance in peace as well as war.
Pregadi /Senate, or upper house of the state, elected by the Gran Consiglio (mostly for one year only). The senate conducted foreign affairs, and heard the relatione of the returning ambassadors as well as receiving their daily dispatches from their embassies all over the east and west.
The senate also presided over financial affairs. Giulio’s father, Andrea, was a secretari notonly of the council of ten but this body as well and acted as liason between both. They nominated the Cinque Savii all Mercanzia/ mentioned above.and elected the officers of the Banco Giro. They managed the environmental issues of flood control and food, and health and sanitation. They debated recommendations of experts in areas of agricultural reform. They were responsible for education and the University of Padua. They were responsible for the judicial system as well. They oversaw the decisions affecting Pasquale Alberti. They were responsible for the merchant fleets and national defense both at sea and on the mainland. The top brass answered directly to them.
In sum, shore they controlled almost every aspect of Venetian life and the officers elected by the Gran Consiglio.
Pien Collegio appendage to the senate, consisting of the signoria, and 16 savi who administered various things like war and troop movements and payment, arranging state visits, and activating new state laws and directives. These people met every morning in the doge’s apartments, arranging whatever proposals were due to the senate which met every Thursday and Saturday. Secretaries prepared their findings and reports. They grew to be very powerful. Just like the council of ten, it consisted of the most accomplished and worldly politicians and aristocrats, though severely limited in their time of office.
Venetian trades, professions, and vocations
medici chirurghi (doctors)
piovan (village priest)
fizzier da marangoni (ships carpenters)
fizzier da maggio (caulkers)
maestre, professori (masters, teachers)
facchini (porters, deliverymen)
piatteri (sellers of pots and pans)
vallesani (fishermen who worked in the valli)
fornieri, pistori (bakers)
aqauroli (water sellers)
casolini (cheese and salami sellers)
pizzicamorti (removers of the plague victims & their possessions)
Annual Events and Holidays in Venice (Festa)
Sposalizio del Mare Wedding of the Sea on Ascension Day
Redentore Festival of the Redeemer, celebrating deliverance from the plague of 1575, culminating at the Redentore church on the third weekend of July
Boats and Ships:
provveditore dell’Armata /naval officer in chief
commandador /(fleet commander)
ammiraglio /(admiral), perhaps 5, one per squadron
capitano, sopracomito/ (captain, chosen from patrician class)
galleotti /(galley crews)
bertones/ ocean-going ships,mostly English and Dutch, of various sizes, easy to maneuver and with high sides, hard to board from low lying hulls of galleys and galleasses. Very seaworthy in rough waters, able to sail in all seasons. Armed with as many as 50 guns (canon and culverin) divided between both decks. Held hundreds of sailors/soldiers, carried good cargoes many over 1000 butts capacity (1 butt=29 cubit feet=1500#) These square-rigged ships grew bigger and bigger over the course of the 17th century.to a point where Venetians had to attach ‘cammelli’ or camels to the sides of the great ships at the deep sea docks at Proveglia so they could be floated into the bacino
brazzere/ small 6-8 oar Uskoki pirate ships off Dalmatian coast, fast and maneuverable galleys of 20 oars /side (great galleys much bigger)open to weather, sitting ducks for bertones and other pirate ships
galleottas/ crews which filled 24 benches w/ as many as 6 men per oar, also consisting of as many as 200 soldiers
galleons/ some w/ 50 guns and 500 soldiers
fuste /smaller lighter bertone
marcilane/ smaller craft, of French origen
galleasses (galeazze)/ low, well-armed fortresses used on the Spalato trade route up and back the north-eastern Adriatic. Really just large galleys,
the galleasses were commanded by a ‘governatore’ and aided by ‘nobili di nave’ all members of the participate. They carried up to 200 tons of cargo and a crew of 200 men and boys. They were part of what was called an ‘armata sotile’ or rowing fleet. Piero helped with what sail they had as part of the crew, and witness the inhumane treatment by the ‘sopracomiti ‘ or ‘governatore candannati’ of the prisoners who rowed chained to their benches. 2 or 3-masted, with canon on the forcastle, they were heavy imposing ships, and could inflict much damage by ramming. Under sail, the oars could be raised ‘acconigliati’.
As war was on, the armata, though engaged in trade, was still responsible to the supreme commander ‘Capitano Generale da Mar’. Non-patricians such as the Almiranti, ‘Comiti’ and ‘Piloti’ also assisted on the galleasses. The ‘Agguzini’ were directly responsible for the galley crews, and could be very wicked task masters
Botta (butt)=10 staia (bushels)=3 salma
Salma=3-3and ½ staia=240liters
100ducats exchange instead of guild providing 1 oarsman from their ranks for a year
moleche soft shelled crabs, fried in an egg-yolk batter
mazanete hard shelled crabs served in December
fegato meat dish
castradina smoked salted mutton from dalmatia, boiled and served with savoy cabbage served in honor of the Madonna della Salute
mazori alla vallesala wild ducks (traditional meal around Redentore)
cicheti small snacks
baccala mantecato stockfish ground with olive oil and garlic served on fried polenta
canoce boiled shrimp
As a zeickentrooster, the ex-mercenary old Pierre Monfoort was limited in his ministerial duties. Most importantly, he could not interpret for others what the Bible said — primarily serving by reading scripture and consoling the sick and dying. Which he did, primarily to Piero Alberti. Although I don’t describe the core of his faith in my first book of my trilogy, ‘Alberti Due,’ (due out this year), I do in ‘Land of Tribute.’ What I left out is best summarized, I think, by Oswald Chambers in his book, ‘My Upmost for His Highest.’
Here, in the reading for May 17th, on page 99, Chambers addresses the part of Christ’s life after His transfiguration dominated by a guiding light such as no one else before or since has experienced, including St. Paul. That is not to say, though, that Christ’s example, however unique to one with such power, did not inspire the ultimate sacrifice of St. Paul and many others since, including Pierre Monfoort.
Perhaps Pieter Caesar Alberti was justified to think early New Amsterdam should have at least one or two canals like his native Venice. After all, hadn’t the Dutch considered the advantages of commerce in his native city when they laid out the ‘grachtengordel’ of Old Amsterdam? Or how wide moat-like canals could serve as protection against enemy attacks? Certainly the original planners of New Amsterdam envisioned that, he had heard more than once. So it was with a mixture of hope and foresight that he built his first house off the two main ditches of lower Manhattan called ‘Breedegraft’ and ‘Beavergraft.’ Alas it was not to be that this indeed happened only after he had sold his house and lot after moving to the Wallabout on Long Island. Read in my chapter ‘Catalyn Tricault’ about the pleasant situation for the Governors of early New York who lived on Alberti’s former property off these tide-water ditches the English turned into working canals crossed with stone bridges.
Click here to read about the traditional prize-fighting off the bridges spanning the canals of Venice. And stay tuned for my upcoming book ‘Pugni di Ponte,’ my second book of the trilogy ‘Este/Oeste.’ Discover the fighting culture of Venice as Piero Alberti represents the ‘army’ of his Castellani (sailors) against the ‘army’ of the Nicoletti (fishermen). Through the eyes of one of the fighters, see the very beginnings of the Italian ‘Mafia.’ Listen to the encouragement of the respected ‘reverendissimi’ and ‘generalissimi’ who both organized and directed this intermittent staged ‘warfare’ and kept the peace as the unofficial police force of Venice.
Click here to read about the use of the Dutch sith in the early Dutch colony of New Amsterdam. And the use of salt grass which grew wild on the borders of the sea and rivers. Too bad Pieter Alberti had no idea that the sith wouldn’t work on thick and reedy salt grass the way a scythe did, and so played the fool in front of his Flemish friends who well knew the sith and mattocks worked only on wheat and such thin grasses. Chalk it up to Italian overconfidence.
Read the description here of the Great Hurricane Pieter and his friend Hendrick got caught in, that is, unless you already have. The Dutch ingenuity of saw milling really helped out the English that year. They could take the sails off the arms when high winds came up, and when it cleared, they could set the mill in whichever direction the wind came from. The English had no such mill for fifty years after 1635. The trees on Manhattan had been thinned already, by custom of the wildenfolk, to create arbors above for shade in summers – a vast ‘Central Park’ if you will, if on the rough side. As the winds blew from the north much more than the west, the ease of transport made it an easy choice to cut up there on the cliffs over the Hudson.